The spiral Starbars are made of special high-density reaction-bonded silicon carbide. A spiral slot in the hot zone reduces the cross sectional area. This provides the electrical resistance ratio to make the ends cool and the hot zone hot. Special cold ends may be welded to further enhance the resistance ratio. To provide a low resistance contact surface the extremities are metallized with aluminum. The electrical connections are made with flat aluminum braids and spring clamps. The terminal ends of the SE element are normally plugged.
SE and TSE Starbars are described by giving the overall length, the heating section length, and the diameter. As an example, SE 36 x 14 x 1 is a spiral element 36" long with a 14" hot zone and 1" in diameter. In millimeters, a SE 914 x 356 x 25 is a spiral element 914 mm long with a 356 mm hot zone and 25 mm in diameter. A TSE 36 x 14 x 3 is a tube-type spiral element 36" long with a 14" hot zone, and a 3" outer diameter. In millimeters, a TSE 914 x 356 x 75 is a tube-type spiral element 914 mm long with a 356 mm hot zone and 75 mm outer diameter.
TSE Starbars are available in five different diameters. The TSE is similar to the SE. The TSE Starbar has a thin wall construction and an internal diameter open from end to end. The thin wall construction makes this Starbar useful for tube furnace applications.
|Item #||Item Name||Diameter||Maximum Heating Length||Maximum Overall Length||Maximum Load Tube ID||Starbar ID|
|TSE-1-3/4-45||Type TSE, Silicon Carbide Spiral Heating Element||1-3/4 Inch|
|24 Inch 610 mm||39 Inch |
|TSE-2-50||Type TSE, Silicon Carbide Spiral Heating Element||2/1 Inch |
|TSE-2-1/8-55||Type TSE, Silicon Carbide Spiral Heating Element||2-1/8 Inch |
|TSE-2-1/2-62||Type TSE, Silicon Carbide Spiral Heating Element||2-1/2 Inch|
|1.81 Inch |
|TSE-3-75||Type TSE, Silicon Carbide Spiral Heating Element||3 Inch|
|2.32 Inch |
There are no restrictions on the mounting positions of Starbars, although the horizontal and vertical positions are common. The most common is vertical with the Starbar being hung from the cold ends. When these Starbars are mounted horizontally the bridge should be supported. The legs should be positioned in the same horizontal plane, not on edge. If the legs were to be positioned in a vertical plane, it would be difficult to get proper support for each leg. The Y Starbar should be mounted only vertically for the same reason. Extreme caution should be used when mounting to ensure that the Starbars are not placed in tension. There should be adequate freedom to allow for the furnace and Starbars to expand and contract independently.
The support hardware, included with each shipment, consists of a stainless steel washer for each leg and two stainless steel cotter pins (three for the Y Starbar), as shown in Figure 3 and listed in Table B. Support hardware and support holes are not included for Starbars to be mounted horizontally.
Starbars should have their heating sections in the furnace chamber so that no portion of the heating section extends into the furnace wall or refractory plug.
Starbars should not be placed closer than two Starbar diameters to each other or one and one half Starbar diameters to a wall or other reflecting body. If the Starbar is not able to dissipate heat energy equally in all directions, it may cause local overheating and possible failure. The formula for computing the recommended Starbar spacing to obtain an even temperature gradient on the product being heated is shown in Figure 4.
Recommended Minimum Refractory Hole Size
Minimum Hole Diameter Based on Refraactory Wall Thickness
|mm / Inch||mm||mm||mm||mm||mm||Inch||Inch||Inch||Inch||Inch|
|10 / 3/8||15||15||16||-||-||9/16||9/16||5/8||-||-|
|11 / 7/16||16||17||18||20||-||5/8||11/16||11/16||3/4||-|
|13 / 1/2||18||19||20||22||-||11/16||3/4||3/4||13/16||-|
|16 / 5/8||21||22||23||25||-||13/16||7/8||7/8||15/16||-|
|19 / 3/4||25||25||26||28||-||15/16||1||1||1-1/16||-|
|25 / 1||31||32||33||35||37||1-3/16||1-1/4||1-1/4||1-5/16||1-7/16|
|32 / 1-1/4||38||39||40||42||44||1-1/2||1-1/2||1-9/16||1-9/16||1-11/16|
|35 / 1-3/8||41||42||43||45||47||1-5/8||1-5/8||1-11/16||1-11/16||1-13/16|
|38 / 1-1/2||45||45||46||48||50||1-3/4||1-3/4||1-13/16||1-7/8||1-15/16|
|45 / 1-3/4||51||52||53||55||57||2||2-1/16||2-1/16||2-1/8||2-3/16|
|54 / 2-1/8||61||62||63||65||67||2-3/8||2-7/16||2-7/16||2-1/2||2-9/16|
|63 / 2-1/2||71||72||73||75||77||2-13/16||2-13/16||2-7/8||2-7/8||3|
|70 / 2-3/4||78||79||80||82||84||3-1/16||3-1/16||3-1/8||3-3/16||3-1/4|
|76 / 3||85||85||86||88||90||3-5/16||3-3/8||3-3/8||3-7/16||3-1/2|
There is a protective coating of silicon dioxide on the silicon carbide. Hydrogen reduces this coating and causes the Starbar to deteriorate. Very dry or very wet hydrogen is detrimental to long service life. Nitrogen atmosphere applications are limited to 2500ºF (1370ºC) and a maximum watt loading of 20 to 30 watts per square inch (3.1 to 4.6 watts per square centimeter). Too high of a surface temperature will result in silicon nitride formation. A thermally insulative layer forms around the Starbar resulting in very high surface temperatures which damage the Starbars.
Hot Zone / Cold Zone (electrical resistance)
The silicon carbide Starbar is a linear type resistance heater that converts electrical energy to heat energy – Joule’s Law W = I2 x R, (W = power in watts, I = current in amperes, R = resistance on ohms).
Starbars are not sized to a specific wattage output like metallic heating elements. The amount of energy that a Starbar is capable of converting from electrical to heat energy depends on the ambient furnace temperature and atmosphere in which the Starbar.
The previous paragraph explained how to calculate the recommended wattage output of the Starbar. The following explains how to compute the electrical requirements to provide the recommended power.
Knowing the wattage output and the resistance of the Starbars supplies two parts of the three variables of the following equation: E=√ (W x R), (E = nominal full load voltage, W = rating of the Starbar in watts, R = resistance of the Starbar in ohms). The resistance of the Starbar can be calculated using the values found in Table A.
Solving for E determines the voltage required to provide the wattage output desired. This assumes a nominal resistance.
Example: A Starbar U 23.5 x 12 x 9.5 x 1 has a resistance of 1.21 ohms and 75 square inches of radiating surface. Loading to 40 watts per square inch, this Starbar could provide 3000 watts.
A Starbar U 597 x 305 x 241x 25 has a resistance of 1.21 ohms and 479 square centimeters of radiating surface. Loading to 6.3 watts per square centimeter, this Starbar could provide 3000 watts.
To find the nominal voltage solve for E.
E = √ (W x R)
E = √ (3000 x 1.21)
E = 60 volts
Starbars may be connected in parallel, series, or combination thereof. Parallel connections are preferred.
In a parallel arrangement the voltage across all the Starbars is the same. In the formula W = E2 ÷ R, (W = watts, E = voltage, R = resistance) it can be seen that the greater the resistance, the lower the wattage output. The Starbars in the parallel circuit with the lowest resistance will supply more heat energy and therefore operate at a higher temperature. This higher Starbar temperature will cause it to gradually increase in resistance until all the Starbars have the same resistance. At this time the Starbars should all have approximately the same resistance values and surface temperatures and therefore remain in balance.
To compute the network resistance of a group of Starbars, the following formula may be used: Rn = R x S ÷ P (Rn = network resistance, R = resistance of Starbar, S = number of Starbars connected in a series, P = number of parallel circuits).
Example: Eight Starbars U 23.5 x 12 x 9.5 x 1 (R = 1.21 ohms) connected 2 in series (S = 2) and 4 parallel groups (P = 4).
Rn = R x S ÷ P
Rn = 1.21 x 2 ÷ 4
Rn = 0.6 ohms
To compute the nominal voltage required to power a set of Starbars, we shall use a combination of the formulas used in the two previous examples. En = √ (Wt x Rn), (En = nominal network voltage, Wt = total wattage output, Rn = network resistance).
Example: Eight Starbars U 23.5 x 12 x 9.5 x 1 (R = 1.21 ohms) connected 2 in series, 4 parallel groups, each Starbar provides 3000 watts. Wt = 8 x 3000 = 24,000 watts, Rn = 0.60 ohms.
En = √ (Wt x Rn)
En = √ (24,000 x 0.6)
En = 120 volts
The resistance of Starbars increases gradually during their service life. Therefore some means of keeping the power input to the kiln or furnace at a level sufficiently high to maintain the desired temperature is required.
Historically, expensive voltage varying equipment such as multiple tap transformers or saturable reactors were recommended for all but the very low temperature applications.
Starbars can be used directly on the line (fixed voltages) at temperatures up to 2400°F (1315°C). To compensate for the reduced output as the Starbars gradually age or increase in resistance, the furnace or kiln is initially overpowered by 25% to 50%. This type of arrangement eliminates the expensive voltage varying equipment and has proven very satisfactory in many applications. It is not recommended when fine process temperature control is required.
Assume a furnace will require approximately 24,000 watts after all heat losses and load factors have been considered. Increasing this 24,000 by 25% to 50% gives a wattage requirement of between 30,000 and 36,000 watts.
By taking another look at the previous example of 8 Starbars, it can be seen that 10 Starbars U 23.5 x 12 x 9.5 x 1 connected two in series five parallel groups on 120 volts would supply the 30,000 watts. If 12 Starbars of the same size were used, the output would be 36,000 watts. Twelve Starbars connected four in series per phase, these three groups then in a delta, on 240 volts would make a balanced three phase 240 volt network.
The temperature of the kiln or furnace is controlled by an off-on controller. When the Starbars are new they will only be powered for 24/30 or 24/36 of the time.
As the Starbars increase in resistance they will be on for a greater percentage of the time. When they have increased in resistance to a point at which they supply 24,000 watts, they will be on 100% of the time. A SCR (silicon controlled rectifier) or thyrister can also be substituted for the contactor.
For applications where close temperature control is desired and/or for temperatures above 2400°F (1315°C) a device for increasing the voltage to the Starbars is required. There are several methods of providing this variable voltage source.
- The multiple tap transformer is the most common, because it is usually the least expensive. The secondary of the transformer is provided with taps which usually vary in number from 10 to 36. By carefully selecting the voltage taps, the correct voltage output to match the resistance of the Starbars over their complete useful life can be made.
- Saturable reactors and induction regulators are used to provide a stepless voltage control. They are also sometimes used with multiple tap transformers.
- Capacitor controls are used infrequently. They, of course, will tend to improve a power factor, which makes their use desirable in some areas.
- Silicon controlled rectifiers, (SCR) have become quite popular with the advances in solid state devices. Because of the poor power factor and other concerns regarding a large phase back, multiple tap transformers are recommended even when the control device is a SCR.
To compensate for the reduced output as the Starbars increase in resistance, a voltage range is required that will compensate for a 100% increase in the Starbar resistance. The following formula may be used to calculate Emax : Emax = √ (Wt x Rn) x 1.5, Emax = recommended maximum voltage required to compensate for increase in resistance due to aging and resistance tolerance, Wt = rating of transformer in watts, Rn = network resistance of the Starbars, 1.5 = minimum margin to accommodate the doubling of the Starbar resistance and the plus 20% resistance tolerance. A higher value will offer slightly longer usable service life.
Example: The transformer is rated at 24 KVA and has a computed nominal full load voltage of 120 volts. (Rn = 0.6, Wt =24,000)
Emax = √ (Wt x Rn) x 1.5
Emax = √ (24,000 x 0.6) x 1.5
Emax = √ (14,400) x 1.5
Emax = 180 volts
The nominal full load voltage and maximum voltage have been computed. When specifying the transformer, the nominal full load voltage is usually reduced to allow for the minus 20% resistance tolerance of the Starbars and slow furnace heatup.
To calculate the minimum voltage, take 70% of the nominal voltage. For periodic applications, take 30% of the nominal full load voltage. Auto transformers may be used if primary voltage is 230 volts or less. They should not be used in a three phase arrangement. Accepted practice limits the secondary voltage on all transformers to 300 volts. Above this, refractory voltage leakage becomes a problem.
When computing the size of the voltage steps between taps, a value of 5% of the nominal full load voltage is often used. When SCR or thyrister controls are used on the primary, fewer taps are required. For example, if 6 taps are used, the idling tap can be 0.7 x nominal voltage, then each consecutive tap would be 14% higher. For 8 taps, the idling tap would again be 0.7 x nominal voltage, each consecutive tap at 9.1% higher than the preceding value.
Ease of Replacement
Starbars can be replaced while the furnace is at operating temperature. The power to the Starbars being changed should be shut off, the spring clips and aluminum braid released, and the old Starbar removed. The new Starbar should be inserted smoothly through the hot furnace with sufficient speed to insure that the aluminum is not melted off the terminal end but not so fast as to cause thermal shock.
Starbars increase gradually in resistance with use. This characteristic of increasing in resistance is called aging. Aging is a function of the following:
- Operating temperature
- Electrical loading – usually expressed in watts per square inch or watts per square centimeter of Starbar radiating surface
- Type of operation (continuous or intermittent)
- Operating and maintenance techniques
Furnace Heating Chamber
Specifications and Matching
Starbars should not be placed closer than two Starbar diameters to each other or one and one half Starbar diameters to a wall or other reflecting body (from the center line of the Starbar).cross section flange is used to support the weight of the plug and Starbar. The plugs are available in both rectangular and cylindrical cross sections, see Figure 5.
The ID of the SE cold ends is normally plugged. The SE is alternatively available with a clear ID which allows it to be used as a tube heater. The SE should be used as a tube heater rather than the TSE because the wall is thicker making it stronger. The TSE should be used only when the ID of the SE is not large enough.
Special higher custom resistance values are available. This is accomplished by machining a smaller spiral width, therefore very high resistance and/or long hot zone lengths are not practical. Lower than standard resistances are not recommended.